Albert Rice.

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The works for Clarinet by J. Haydn & M. Haydn

Complete catalogue of Joseph Haydn's works written for Clarinet pp. 38-42.

J. Haydn started writing works for Clarinet at the beginning of his career. The first work written in 1761 (Hob. II: 14) was likely to be played still on 2 or 3 key baroque clarinets: parts are conservative, show the use of a limited range, are similar to Telemann's and Rathgeber's works. The diffusion of small bands of wind instruments (i.e. Harmonien) began in 1740s. In 1750s we see also the inclusion of clarinets in such bands. Discussion on Hob. II: 14 (1761). Discussion on Hob. II: 17 (1765) still for baroque clarinets. However Michael Haydn, already in 1764, had written a Divertimento in D (ST 68), including a concerto part for a 4 or 5 key A clarinet (the earliest solo work for such clarinet), with a technically demanding clarinet part similar to those written by J. and C. Stamitz, starting 1750s. Discussion on Divertimento in D (ST 68). Since in that period there wasn't a clarinet virtuoso in Salzburg, evidently the Divertimento was written, as usual, on commission for a special musician not from Salzburg. On R. and A. Griesbacher clarinetists, using 4 or 5 key clarinet, and working at Eszterháza from 1775 to 1778. On this occasion, and also later, J. Haydn had not a particular interest in this instrument. He perfectly knew the common use of such instruments in Opera, he knew Mozart clarinet writing (Nozze di Figaro) and also for basset clarinet (Cosě Fan Tutte), however J. Haydn usually used flutes, as substitutes of clarinets, also when performing others' music for clarinets: all this evidently due to a difficulty, for J. Haydn, in having good clarinetists at hand. In 1790s, instead, J. Haydn started writing interesting works with more elaborated clarinet parts, and especially for England. Discussion on Haydn's spurious works for Clarinet. Discussion on 2 Clarinet Concertos and a Concerto for 2 Clarinets attributed to Haydn, but considered not authentic (see D. Kloecker). Discussion on Clarinet d'amour. The use of Clarinet in Symphonies 99, 100, 101, 103, 104. Use of Clarinet in Missa in tempore belli (1796) and in Missa Sancti Bernardi de Offida (1796). The masterly use of 5 key Clarinet in The Creation (1798). Other late works with Clarinets. The technical difference between the English Clarinet and the Viennese-German Clarinet influenced Haydn's writing for such instruments. For the Viennese-German Clarinet, more versatile and with full-bodied sound, Haydn wrote more freely and confidently: this marks the difference between Haydn's London clarinet writing and Haydn's Vienna-Eisenstadt clarinet writing.
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The Clarinet in the Works of Joseph and Michael Haydn

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