|Thanks to your intense activity as conductor, artistic director, music scholar and critical editor, you managed to develop an important series of music projects on a very special Viennese triad: Mozart, Haydn and Martín y Soler. So you really re-create, this way, that special authentic Vienna musical atmosphere of the 1780s, when Haydn was already a papa and both Mozart and Martín y Soler (backed by those great librettos by Da Ponte) became the Theatre Opera Best Sellers from Vienna to Prague with their Nozze di Figaro, Una cosa rara, Don Giovanni and L'arbore di Diana, and Martín y Soler was so successful to become the favourite composer of the Imperial Court. What fascinated and fascinates you most about the music of Martín y Soler? And, in your opinion, what characteristics of his music and of his operas impressed and attracted the 18th century audience so much that Martín y Soler's operas managed to receive such an extraordinary amount of theatre performances for that period (almost 100 performances only for Una cosa rara and the usual theatre income for 24 successful performances was ca. 20,000 florins, i.e. ca. 140,000 modern US dollars: Mozart's annual Imperial salary was 800 florins, i.e. ca. 4,800 modern US dollars)?|
Since my early years as a musical director, I have had the impulse to research and
perform forgotten works by not-so-popular musicians such as La Contadina by Johann
Adolph Hasse (1699-1783), the zarzuela Las labradoras de Murcia by Antonio Rodríguez
de Hita (1724-1787) and the oratorio Il sacrifizio di Abramo by Camilla de Rossi
(16??-1710). In this context and while I was studyig in-depth Spanish authors of
the 17th and 18th centuries, Vicente Martín y Soler (1754-1806) appeared. It also
coincided that back in 2006, when the Teatro Real de Madrid (Royal Theatre of Madrid),
where I was working as conductor of its young orchestra Orquesta Escuela de la
Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid, decided to produce the opera Il Tutore Burlato (1775)
on the occasion of the 200th death anniversary of Martín y Soler and therefore I
had the chance to work in-depth on his music. It was in that very moment that I
began studying his work and life more thoroughly.
Martín y Soler, Il Tutore Burlato, Overture
The first factor that has drawn me to Martín y Soler was that he, a Spanish composer, could enjoy such resounding success in Europe's most prominent musical centres in the final years of the 18th century, and that he was, at the same time, in direct competition to musicians of the highest level such as Mozart himself, whom he even managed to surpass in popularity.
What I find fascinating about Martín y Soler also coincides with what I think was one of the keys to his success: to be a flexible and versatile musician who knew how to adapt himself and his music to the various trends and requirements that he had to face during the various and different (also geographical) situations of his life, be that in Spain, Italy, England, Russia or Vienna with their respective Italian, French and Russian operas.
A great example of this is what happened when the empress Catherine II of Russia requested the service of Vicente Martín y Soler, who was at that moment a highly acclaimed composer and a favourite of Joseph II in Vienna, where he was known, in his role of a successful and celebrated maestro, as lo Spagnuolo.
The czarina was not satisfied with the work of Domenico Cimarosa who was then maestro di cappella at the Imperial Court and whose duties included the composition of Italian operas and the new Russian opera which Catherine II wanted to empower. Martín y Soler knew how to adapt to his Russian operas and highly fulfilled what was expected of him.
On the other hand, thanks to this replacement, in 1791 Cimarosa reached Vienna where he occupied, for a few months, the position of court composer that was formerly deserted by Salieri, (a position also intensely desired by Mozart, dead by then), to conduct the premiere of Il Matrimonio segreto in February 1792 with resounding success, which is considered today his best opera and one of the best comic operas of that period. It is well known how, after the sudden death (by poisoning?) of the Austrian emperor Leopold in March 1792, Cimarosa had to leave the Imperial Court and Salieri received his position of court composer back, to keep it de facto for another thirty years.
Cimarosa, Il matrimonio segreto (2012)
Another of the keys to Martín y Soler's success was that he knew how to keep this flexibility and his ability to adapt without ever losing his own style and essence.
Throughout his career, his aesthetics follow certain general guidelines similar to those used by Spanish composers of the 18th century: a clear and clean orchestration, that avoids excess and artificiality where the voice did not compete in a counterpoint way with the orchestra, and a contained harmony. This apparent simplicity, his capacity for creating beautiful and catchy melodies and that amiable atmosphere of divertimento of his operas enchanted and captivated the audience of all the social classes.
It surely comes across as striking, yet during Martín y Soler's Viennese period his operas were certainly more frequently performed and had more success than the majority of Mozart's, who deliberately wrote for intellectual elite.
|You gained great audience and critical acclaim a few years ago, thanks to your most beautiful and brilliant production of Haydn's opera La vera costanza. What did you love most of Haydn, the opera composer? And in what elements of his operas do you think the inventiveness and wit of the Haydn of the Quartets and of the Symphonies do emerge with all their charm?|
Haydn really played a major and fundamental role in establishing two of the greatest
forms of western music: the string quartet and the symphony. He used the string
quartet as the means for formal experimenting, achieving thus that peculiar unity, where
before there was just a series of movements. He exports his work on the string quartet
to his symphonies and, of course, to his operas as well. That interrelation between different genres that he encouraged is, in its essence, both logical and visible.
During his life, Haydn enjoyed success and recognition for his work, as rarely
happens in history, however after his death and to this day his numerous and
valuable works have become progressively forgotten and neglected due to various
circumstances. Among these circumstances there is certainly also the appearance
of Mozart and Beethoven, and so daddy Haydn started occupying the real undeserved
role of a mere introduction to the well-known geniuses.
His very works are a real example of this kind of oblivion that their composer Haydn had to suffer, since they are rarely featured in present theatre programmes, and this is a tremendous pity.
I have been lucky enough to be able to work on such magnificent title as La vera costanza (1779)...
Haydn, La vera costanza, Sinfonia Introduzione
Haydn, La vera costanza, Finale Atto II
... and Il mondo della luna (1777), both composed while Haydn was in the service of the Eszterházy family (and the majority of his operatic catalogue was conceived, written and produced in such circumstances).
Haydn's creativity and imagination are overwhelming. His arias and ensemble numbers have their own personality and they are characterized by that peculiar Haydnian scent, so to speak. Haydn is a real magician when it comes to regulating the intensity of music and to carrying it to its climax in a masterly way in his Finale, as his friend and admirer Mozart did in a very similar way.
However Haydn had a disadvantage, when we consider his opera production in comparison to that of Mozart and Martín y Soler: the quality of his librettos, in reality, was not excellent. Working in the Eszterházy court, he did not have a lot of opportunities to work with librettists of the rank of Lorenzo Da Ponte, while Mozart and Martín y Soler could work with him, one of the best librettists of that period. Probably this is one of the reasons why present day theatres do not produce his operas with particular assiduousness, even though Haydn's music is so marvellous.
Another aspect that I much cherish in Haydn is his humour, always so manifestly evident in his entire musical production and this even more overtly and effectively in his own operas.
|Thanks to your activity as concert organizer, you have revived also a special type of 1780s concert: concerts featuring, during the same soirée, music by Mozart and by Martín y Soler. Probably the first time this happens since 1780s, when we know from the sources that music-lovers adored to organize such types of concerts (Mozart+Martín y Soler) with «extraordinarily numerous audience... and in unanimous satisfaction... elicited unanimous applause». What have been your impressions in finally re-uniting such two great masters of music for the same concert? Mozart wrote also a few vocal pieces to be included in the Operas by Martín y Soler: do you think he wrote such pieces, by using exclusively his own style or added also a bit of Martín y Soler in them?|
I see this type of programmes with great satisfaction, both on a personal level and
also because of the reaction of the audience and of the musicians themselves. A
marvellous example is the programme for the debut of my period instrument orchestra
La Madrileña which featured exclusively works by both authors. I chose masterpieces
by Mozart such as the Symphony No. 40 in G Minor,...
Mozart, Symphony No. 40
... the aria of Leporello Madamina, il catalogo è questo from Don Giovanni or the duo Crudel! Perchè finora from The marriage of Figaro and I combined them with overtures, arias and duos from operas by Martín y Soler such as Il burbero di buon cuore, Una cosa rara, La capricciosa corretta and L’isola del piacere. These works did not only prove a competence of Martín y Soler on the level of a Mozart, but the audience and even some of the orchestra members themselves were really amazed at the intrinsic high quality of Martín y Soler's works.
Regarding your second question, yes indeed, the musical interrelation between Mozart and Martín y Soler is not only due to the famous quote from Una cosa rara which appears in the finale of Don Giovanni.
Sometimes these operas were performed during a long period of time and it would be necessary to replace one or another of the singers and such situations led to inevitably remake and readjust the music to the new voices.
This is exactly what happened in 1789 with the repositioning of a few arias of Il Burbero di buon cuore for the character of Madama Lucilla: Chi sa qual sia and Vado, ma dove.
Mozart, Aria Chi sa qual sia
This opera by Martín y Soler had premiered three years before and the new singer, Louise Villeneuve, needed for her arias to be developed in a more centred register. As lo Spagnuolo, Martín y Soler, was in San Petersburg, Mozart received the assignment for the rewriting. Mozart accepted and composed these two magnificent arias based on the same text by Lorenzo Da Ponte, yet in his own personal style.
|Your orchestra La Madrileña receives its name after Martín y Soler first opera Il tutore burlato or La Madrileña (1775-1776 as zarzuela), both as an homage to Martín y Soler and as a label for your Music Project The Martín y Soler Project. Among your activities with your orchestra, you are presenting a series of concerts featuring again rare beautiful music from the Spain of the 18th century with works by Martín y Soler, Boccherini, José de Nebra, Rodriguez de Hita and from the Zarzuela tradition. What are your vision and your projects for your orchestra La Madrileña and for the music of 18th century for the future, especially regarding The Martín y Soler Project? Do you think also that your activity of music critical editor will lead you also to re-discover some other lost music gems, after your marvellous work with Martín y Soler's opera Pesnolubie?|
I have great and ambitious expectations for La Madrileña and The Martín y Soler
Project related activities. I hope we could soon complete our concert activities
with also a series of productions of opera and zarzuela; the musicians I am fortunate
to rely on are extremely capable and this allows them to tackle any type of production.
Regarding the Martín y Soler Project, which is in the DNA of La Madrileña, it is through this project that we aspire to encounter the recognition that Martín y Soler deserves. I firmly believe that the ideal way to showcase his music qualities is through an orchestra of period instruments of the highest standard such as La Madrileña.
Regarding the second question, I have been finding really hidden gems for so many years, until today, and I am sure that this state of things will certainly continue in this way, as long as I steadily carry on a strenuous archival and documentary research.
On the other hand, and especially regarding the Spanish music heritage, we have to state that it is so vast and of such a high quality, that it is hard to believe that it has been so scarcely performed so far. In addition, I have the pleasure to be able to rely on the invaluable help of various musicologists. Vera Fouter is one of them and her contribution is the largest one to The Martín y Soler Project. Doctor Fouter (Vera Fouter at Academia; Read here her work on Martín y Soler - University of Oviedo: La Estancia en Rusia de Vicente Martín y Soler: nuevas aportaciones musicologicas) is an academic major, specialized in Martín y Soler and it is mainly thanks to her studies and efforts that the revival in modern times of three arias from the opera Pesnolubie by Martín y Soler has been possible and this with the collaboration of La Madrileña: such works, in fact, have not been performed for more than 200 years!
Martín y Soler, Aria V svéte liúdi svoevólni from opera Pesnolubie
Presently we continue working together on Martín y Soler's music and we are really looking forward to being able to show the fruit of our work, as soon as possible, by presenting, to the public, new marvellous forgotten gems by him and by other composers.
|Your favourite work by Mozart and your favourite work by J. Haydn.|
This is a tough question, since I am literally capable of crazily falling in love
with the works I am working on at the moment.
If I am conducting the 41st Symphony by Mozart, it happens that, during the process of study, the rehearsals, and the concerts, that very symphony can become even my favourite symphony ever.
And this always happens to me, always and with all the works I am working on.
However, if I had really to choose an opera, in particular, and nothing else, I'd choose Don Giovanni.
Mozart, Don Giovanni, Overture
Mozart, Don Giovanni, Aria Madamina, il catalogo è questo
I also think that that very peculiar experience that one lives when conducting (one's memories, perceptions, the atmosphere, etc.), always exerts a great influence on one's disposition towards things and also towards music works.
Many things, so, may exert a direct influence on one's choices, but, without a doubt, Don Giovanni is special to me.
For Haydn, I would choose Die Schöpfung.
It is a masterpiece for which I have always cultivated a profound admiration: it is an oratorio full of subtleties and of dramatic qualities, well deserving to be positioned among the greatest masterpieces of all time.
|Beside Martín y Soler, do you have in mind the name of some neglected composer of the 18th century you'd like to see re-evaluated?|
I am interested in José de Nebra (1702-1768), a Spanish composer who composed marvellous
zarzuelas and sacred works.
He is a great artist who, with minimal resources, was capable of achieving great expressiveness: a characteristic typical only of great maestros.
|Considering your work on Martín y Soler and the zarzuela, name a neglected piece of music of the 18th century you'd like to see performed in concert with more frequency.|
|Any opera by Martín y Soler and any zarzuela by Nebra represent marvellous concert and performance proposals, worthy to be included into any Music Season programme more frequently.|
|Have you read a particular book on Mozart Era you consider important for the comprehension of the music of this period?|
I think it is of great importance to develop a proper knowledge both of the oldest
and of the latest musical treatises, with a particular attention to those treatises,
which belong to the same era as the music works you are working on: it's the only
way to better understand any phase of the musical creativity process in its correct
context and also within the historical flow.
To have a wider perspective always gives you the possibility of a better comprehension both of the subject, as a whole, and of its single parts and elements. Considering this special perspective, I think that the famous treatises by Quantz and Leopold Mozart are indispensable tools for any musician, even though those treatises belong to a previous generation, or better, exactly because they belong to that previous generation that produced the music of the 18th century.
On the other hand, I consider it very useful to develop also a proper historical, social and political knowledge, and not only a musical and an artistic one. I would like to cite here The Present State of Music in France and Italy by Charles Bruney and the Memoirs by Lorenzo Da Ponte, both perfect books for that type of intellectual work, I was talking about.
[The Memoirs by Lorenzo Da Ponte are already available to read & download at the MozartCircle Library: Mozart's Life Books - Other Sources. Also the other books and treatises will be available soon.]
|Name a movie or a documentary that can improve the comprehension of the music of this period.|
Considering the movies related to classicism, it is inevitable to remember the most
To complete an ideal trilogy that would help to grant a perspective on the previous and later periods I would cite Eroica, which re-enacts the first rehearsal of the 3rd Symphony by Beethoven (the recording is with musicians who play on period instruments), and Farinelli, il castrato, especially because of the very peculiar relationship of this great singer and of his family with Spain.
|Do you think there's a special place to be visited that proved crucial to the evolution of the 18th century piano music?|
I think that if I had to choose a place, it would be Vienna.
The weight and influence that Haydn and Mozart had on Beethoven and on the future of the German and European music is simply indisputable.
However we cannot forget to mention Italy.
The musical genre of Viennese classicism, in fact, is par excellence, in reality, the Italian Opera buffa, to which later composers, like Rossini and Donizetti, gave their enormous contribution, preparing the way to a long series of excellent maestros, from Bellini to Verdi.
|Thank you very much for having taken the time to answer our questions!|